Former U.S.S.R. president. Born in 1931. Graduated from Moscow State University. As secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and presidium chairman of the Supreme Soviet, Mr. Gorbachev led policies of perestroika (reconstruction) and glasnost (transparency) for democratization. Involved in disarmament, he took the initiative in ending the Cold War through U.S.-U.S.S.R. summit meetings. Became the first U.S.S.R. president in 1990 and resigned in 1991 at the dissolution of the U.S.S.R. Nobel Peace Prize in 1990. Now active as head of the International Foundation for Socio-Economic and Political Studies (Gorbachev Fund) and International Green Cross/Green Crescent.